Are Environmental and Biological Factors Associated with Leprosy?


Siti Mar’atul Munawaroh1), Rokhmayanti2), Andri Setyo Dwi Nugroho3)

1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Department of Public Health, Ahmad Dahlan University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

3)Yogyakarta Health Office, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

ABSTRACT

Background: Leprosy among children and adolescents has been correlated with certain social and environmental aspects, such as malnutrition, living in overcrowded households, and it could also be linked to interactions with potential animal reservoirs. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between environmental and biological factors on the risk of leprosy.

Subjects and Method: A case control study was conducted in Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, from March to July, 2019. A number of 44 leprosy patients and 44 non-leprosy patients was selected by purposive sampling. The dependent variable was leprosy. The independent variables were physical environment (drain and trash) and biological environment (presence of mice and animal ownership). Data on leprosy were obtained from medical record in Kulon Progo District Health Office and 21 health centers in Yogyakarta. The other data were collected by questionnaire and observation. The data were analyzed by a multiple logistic regression.

Results: Poor drain (aOR= 1.16; 95% CI= 0.41 to 3.23; p= 0.780), presence of mice (aOR= 2.16; 95% CI= 0.58 to 11.8; p= 2.610), and animal ownership (aOR= 2.94; 95% CI= 0.43 to 20.1; p= 0.272) increased the risk of leprosy, but it was statistically non-significant. Presence of trash decreased the risk of leprosy, but it was statistically non-significant (aOR= 0.91; 95% CI= 0.35 to 2.43; p= 0.857).

Conclusion: Poor drain, presence of mice, and animal ownership increase the risk of leprosy, but it was statistically non-significant. Presence of trash decreases the risk of leprosy, but it was statistically non-significant.

Keywords: leptospirosy, risk factors, environmental factor, biological factor

Correspondence:

Siti Maratul Munawaroh. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: sitimaratul08@­gmail.com. Mobile: +6282133295468.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/AB.Epidemiology.ICPH.08.2021.06

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