Prevalence and Risk Factors of Stunting in Children Aged 0-23 Months in Indonesia

Sudikno1), Dodi Izwardy1), Sugeng Eko2)Irlina Raswanti Irawan1), Aditianti1), Sandjaja2)


1)Research and Development Center for Public Health, Health Research and Development Agency, Jakarta, Indonesia

2)Nutrition and Food Experts Society of Indonesia (Pergizi Pangan), Jakarta, Indonesia



Background: Growth stunting is considered an important indicator of child health inequalities. It can be caused by several factors in both pre- and post-natal phases of development, some of these factors include poor nutrition, infectious diseases, and household environment. A global review of stunting in low- and middle-income countries identified growth restriction in-utero and lack of access to sanitation as the main drivers of stunting. This study aimed to investigate prevalence and risk factors of stunting in children aged 0-23 months in Indonesia.

Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectional study conducted using secondary data from Indonesian Basic Health Research, 2018. A sample of 10,799 children aged 0-23 months in Indonesia was selected for this study. The dependent variable was stunting. The independent variables were gender, age group, region (rural/urban), birth weight, birth length, and maternal height. The data were analyzed using a multiple logistic regression.

Results: The prevalence of stunting in children aged 0-23 months, 0-11 months, and 12-23 months was 28.9%, 22.4%, and 36.8%, respectively. The risk of stunting in children aged 0-23 months in Indonesia increased if male (aOR= 1.32; 95% CI= 1.21 to 1.44; p< 0.001), aged 12-23 months (aOR= 2.05; 95% CI= 1.88 to 2.22; p< 0.001), living in rural areas (aOR= 1.21; 95% CI= 1.11 to 1.32; p< 0.001), low birth weight (aOR= 1.78; 95% CI= 1.48 to 2.15; p< 0.001), birth length <48 cm (aOR= 1.50; 95% CI= 1.35 to 1.66 p< 0.001), and maternal height <145 cm (aOR= 1.93; 95% CI= 1.65 to 2.26; p< 0.001).

Conclusion: The risk of stunting in children aged 0-23 months in Indonesia increases if male, aged 12-23 months, living in rural areas, low birth weight, birth length <48 cm, and maternal height <145 cm.

Keywords: stunting, risk factors, children under five

Corespondence: Sudikno. Center for Research and Development of Community Health Efforts. Jl. Percetakan Negara 29, Central Jakarta, Indonesia. Email: Mobile: +62 81316350502.




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