The Effect of Garlic Supplementation on C-Reactive Protein in Overweight and Obese People: Meta-Analysis


Zuraida Zulkarnain

 

Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

 

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent studies suggest that obesity triggers systemic chronic inflam­ma­tion by activation of innate immune system in adipose tissue. This condition  leading to a continuous release of C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and increases the risk of cardio­vascular events. Garlic is one of the plants that has been widely studied for its anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to determine the effect of garlic supplementa­tion on CRP levels in overweight and obese people.

Subjects and Methods: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis. The search­ing of articles through Google Scholar, Pubmed, Science Direct, and Elsevier databases. The articles were filtered using PICO model, including: (1) Population= overweight or obese people, (2) intervention= garlic supplementation, (3) comparison= placebo, and (4) outcome= CRP. Keywords entered were “garlic” or “age garlic extract” AND “CRP” or “hs-CRP” or “inflammation” AND “obese” or “overweight” or “metabolic syndrome” AND “RCT”. The inclusion criteria were articles in Indonesian or English with accessi­ble full text, randomized controlled trial, overweight and obese category based on body mass index, and garlic as a single supplementation. Data analysis using Review Manager 5.3.

Results: 10 articles were eligible and analyzed for meta-analysis. Garlic dosage varies between 400-3600 mg/day. The treatment duration was between 2 weeks to 3 months. The result showed that the administration of garlic was not significant in reducing CRP levels in obese and overweight populations (SMD= -0.06; 95% CI=-0.59 to 0.47; p= 0.820; I2=89%). Subgroup analysis of 7 studies with comorbid diseases subjects found a borderline statistically significant decrease in CRP levels (SMD= -0.37; 95% CI=-0.77 to 0.04; p=0.070; I2=76%). Likewise, the results of the subgroup analysis in 2 studies with healthy obese subjects showed an insignificant decrease (SMD= -0.09; 95% CI=-0.85 to 0.67; p=0.810; I2=56%).

Conclusion: Garlic supplementation in overall overweight and obese people has no effect on CRP levels.

Keywords: garlic supplementation, C-Reactive Protein, overweight, obesity

Correspondence: Zuraida Zulkarnain. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: zuraida.zu@gmail.com.

DOIhttps://doi.org/10.26911/AB.Medicine.ICPH.08.2021.23

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