Factors Influencing Depression in Medical Students during the Covid-19 Pandemic

Heni Hastuti1,2), Fatin Nabila Rizqi1), Mohammad Fanani1),

Anak Agung Alit Kirti Estuti Narendra Putri1)


1)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Center for Health Promotion and Community Empowerment Studies,

The Institution of Research and Community Services, Universitas Sebelas Maret




Background: Student mental health in higher education has been an increasing concern during COVID-19 pandemic. Mental health issues are the leading impediment to academic success. Mental illness can affect students’ motivation, concentration, and social interactions—crucial factors for students to succeed in higher education. This study aimed to determine the factors that influence depression in medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectional study. A sample of 589 students were selected for this study from the Medical Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Central Java, from 2017 to 2020. The dependent variable was depression. The independent variables were age, gender, year of class, self-control, and self-restraint. Depression was measured by Beck’s Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) questionnaire. Self-control was measured by the Self-Control Scale. Self-restraint was measured by Resilience Scale-14 (RS-14). The data were analyzed using logistic regression model.

Results: The risk of depression among medical students decreased with better self-control (OR= 0.93; 95% CI= 0.91 to 0.96; p= 0.399) and self-restraint (OR= 0.94; 95% CI= 0.92 to 0.96; p= 0.003), and it was statistically significant. The risk of depression among medical students increased if female (OR= 2.24; 95% CI= 0.89 to 5.58; p= 0.032) and it was statistically significant. The associations between depression and age as well as year of class were statistically non-significant (p>0.05).

Conclusion: Better self-control and self-restraint are associated with less risk of depression among medical students. Female students have higher risk of depression than males. Age and year of class are not significantly associated with the risk of depression.

Keywords: depression, self-control, self-restraint, COVID-19, medical student.

Correspondence: Heni Hastuti. Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Jebres, Surakarta, Central Java. Email: henihastuti1988@staff.uns.ac.id. Mobile: 081904534310.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/ICPHepidemiology.FP.08.2021.14

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