Factors Affecting Anxiety and Depression of Health Workers during the First Wave Covid-19 Pandemic in Indonesia


Lely Indrawati1), Rofingatul Mubasyiroh1), Siti Isfandari2)

 

1)Center for Research and Development of Public Health Efforts,

Health Research and Development Agency, Indonesia

2)Center for Research and Development of Humanities and Health Policy,

Health Research and Development Agency, Indonesia

 

ABSTRACT

 

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers are expected to deal with patients’ traumatic experiences and the unexpected loss of friends, family, and colleagues. As a result, they are affected by psychological distress, including depression, anxiety, and stress. This study aimed to determine the factors that influence anxiety and depression in health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Subjects and Method: This time-series study was conducted on May 2-4, 2020, and September 3-30, 2020. A sample of 823 healthcare workers was selected for this study. The dependent variables were anxiety and depression. The independent variables were gender, age, resilience, area of ​​residence, and COVID-19 zoning. Anxiety was measured by General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7). Depression was measured by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression.

Results: The risk of moderate to severe anxiety increased with living in red-orange zone (OR= 0.35; 95% CI= 0.13 to 0.96; p= 0.041) and lack of resilience (OR= 4.51; 95% CI= 2.14 to 9.52; p<0.005), and statistically significant (p<0.05). The risk of moderate to severe anxiety increased with female gender (OR= 1.88; 95% CI= 0.70 to 5.09; p= 0.215), age <40 years (OR= 1.53; 95% CI= 0.61 to 3.84; p = 0.365), living in ​​Java (OR= 2.52; 95% CI= 0.94 to 6.76; p= 0.067), but with statistically non-significant (p>0.05). The risk of moderate to severe depression increased with age <40 years (OR= 5.02; 95% CI= 1.15 to 22.00; p= 0.032), living in Java (OR= 5.53; 95% CI= 2.05 to 13.48; p= 0.001), lack of resilience (OR= 7.03; 95% CI= 3.47 to 17.67; p<0.001), and statistically significant (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The risk of moderate to severe depression increases with age <40 years, living in Java, lack resilience in health workers, and they are statistically significant. Likewise, the risk of moderate to severe anxiety increases with living in a red-orange zone, and lack of resilience, and they were statistically significant. The risk of moderate to severe anxiety increases with female gender, age <40 years, living in Java, but they are statistically non-significant.

Keywords: health workers, depression, anxiety, COVID-19 pandemic

Correspondence: Lely Indrawati. Center for Research and Development of Public Health Efforts, Health Research and Development Agency, Indonesia. Jl. Percetakan Negara No 29, Central Jakarta.  Email: lelyindra@gmail.com. Mobile: 08128176371.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/ICPHepidemiology.FP.08.2021.15

 

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