Effects of Coffee and Tea Consumption and Dietary Diversity on Anemia in Pregnant Women: A Meta-Analysis

Lilik Hanifah1,2), Catur Setyorini1,2), Anita Dewi Lieskusumastuti1,2), Saras Kuntari2), Aris Widiyanto2)


1)Universitas ‘Aisyiyah, Yogyakarta

2)School of Health Sciences Mamba’ul ‘Ulum, Surakarta




Background: Gestational anemia has become a significant global burden. Anemia has multiple risk factors, including food consumption. The most important thing is hypothesized to be the lifestyle-based risk factors. This study aimed to determine the effect of coffee and tea consumption and dietary diversity on anemia in pregnant women.

Subjects and Methods: This study was a meta-analysis. Online articles from 2011 to 2021 were searched from databases, including  PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar, 2011 to 2021. The PICO was as follows. Population: pregnant women. Intervention: coffee consumption and tea and diet diversity. Comparison: without coffee and tea consumption and dietary diversity. Outcome: anemia. The data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software.

Results: A total of 9 articles from Ethiopia and Tanzania were included in the meta-analysis. Pregnant women who frequently consumed coffee and tea after meals had a higher risk of developing anemia than those who did not (OR=1.63; 95% CI= 0.34 to7.78; p=0.53). Likewise, pregnant women with low scores on the diversity of foods had a higher risk of developing anemia (OR=4.16; 95% CI= 2.35  to 7.38; p= 0.001).

Conclusion: The habit of consuming tea and coffee after eating and the low score of the diversity of foods can increase the risk of anemia in pregnant women.


Keywords: coffee-tea, diet diversity, anemia, pregnant women

CorrespondenceLilik Hanifah. Universitas ‘Aisyiyah Yogyakarta.  Jl. Siliwangi No. 63, Mlangi, Nogotirto, Gamping, Sleman, Yogyakarta. Email: lilik_hanifah84@yahoo.­co.id. Mobile: 085725630249.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/ICPHepidemiology.FP.08.2021.21

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