Associations between Latrine, Clean Water Availability, and Stunting in Children Under Five in Batam, Riau Island

Hengky Oktarizal1,2), Yuanita Windusari3), Irfannuddin4), R. Kintoko Rochadi5)


1)Doctoral Program of Environmental Sciences, Sriwijaya University, Palembang, Indonesia

2)Faculty of Health Sciences, Ibnu Sina University, Batam, Indonesia

3)Faculty of Public Health, Sriwijaya University, Palembang, Indonesia

4)Faculty of Medicine, Sriwijaya University, Palembang, Indonesia

5)Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia




Background: Stunting is a global burden affecting nearly 160 million children younger than five years of age. Whilst the linkages between nutrition and stunting are well recognized, there is a need to explore environmental factors such as water and sanitation, which may influence feeding practices and result in potential infection pathways. This study aimed to determine the association of toilets and clean water availability with the incidence of stunting in children under five.

Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Galang, Batam, Riau Island, Indonesia, in March 2021. A sample of 82 children under five years was selected randomly. The dependent variable was stunting. The independent variables were the availability of toilets and clean water. The data were collected by questionnaire and observation. The bivariate analysis was performed by Chi-square test.

Results: The risk of stunting reduced with the availability of latrine (OR= 0.09; 95% CI= 0.03 to 0.30; p< 0.001) and clean water (OR= 0.01; 95% CI<0.01 to 0.08; p< 0.001).

Conclusion: The risk of stunting reduces with the availability of latrine and clean water.


Keywords: stunting, availability, toilet, clean water, children under five

 Correspondence: Hengky Oktarizal. Doctoral Program of Environmental Sciences, Sriwijaya University, Palembang, Indonesia. Email: Mobile: +62 85272043639.




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