Changes in Length/Height Deficit Level Children to Stunting in Indonesia


Rika Rachmawati, Irlina Raswanti Irawan, Yunita Diana Sari

 

Center for Research and Development of Public Health Efforts, Health Research

and Development Agency, Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia

 

ABSTRACT

 

Background: Stunting is the most prevalence form of childhood undernutrition, with an estimated 155 million children worldwide falling below 2 SD from the WHO standard length/height-for-age median in 2016. Child stunting and linear growth faltering have declined over the past few decades and several countries have made exemplary progress. This study aimed to examine if Indonesia had made progress in reducing childhood stunting based on data taken from Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) in 2013 and 2018, respectively.

Subjects and Method: These were two cross-sectional studies conducted in 2013 and 2018, respectively. Samples of 30,616 and 28,727 children were selected from Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) in 2013 and 2018, respectively. The dependent variable was deficit in height for age (cm) as compared with the WHO standard for stunted and normal children by age. The difference in mean deficit of height for age between 2013 and 2018 for both male and female children was tested by t-test.

Results: Mean deficit of height for age in 2018 male children (Mean= 2.89; SD= 2.92) was smaller than that in 2013 (Mean= 3.86; SD= 3.55), and it was statistically significant (p< 0.001). Likewise, mean deficit of height for age in 2018 female children (Mean=2.87; SD= 3.01) was smaller than that in 2013 (Mean= 3.84; SD= 3.61), and it was statistically significant (p< 0.001).

Conclusion: Mean deficit of height for age as compared with the WHO standard in 2018 is smaller than that in 2013 for both male and female children under five years of age. Indonesia has made progress in reducing childhood stunting based on data taken from Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) in 2013 and 2018, respectively.

 

Keywords: stunting, height deficit, catch-up growth, linear growth retardation, children

Correspondence: Rika Rachmawati. Research and Development Center for Public Health Efforts. Health Research and Development Agency, Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia. Jl. Percetakan Negara No. 29, Central Jakarta 10560. Email: rykamarlem@gmail.com. Phone : +62 8170002862

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/ICPHmaternal.FP.08.2021.04

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