History of Pregnancy, Parenting, Use of Electronic Media and Their Correlations with Delayed Child Development

Budi Setyawati, Noviati Fuada, Salimar


National Institute of Health Research and Development, Republic of Indonesia



Background: One of the topics that become so important in parenting is our child’s physical and cognitive development. One of the most critical time periods in child development and learning is from birth to five years old. The first five years of child development is crucial to their health, wellbeing, and the overall trajectory of their lives in variety of ways. This study aimed to investigate the roles of gestation history, parenting style, and use of electronic media on the occurrence of development delay in children.

Subjects and Method: This was an analytic qualitative study with phenomenology and ethnographic approaches. This study was conducted in Bogor, West Java in November 2019. Key informants in this study were mothers who had children with delayed development. The additional informants included other family members, neighbors, and health cadres, who were selected purposively. The data were collected by in-depth interview, unobtrusive observation, and document review. The data were analyzed descriptively.

Results: Mothers who had children with development delay experienced some biological and psychosocial problems during pregnancy, including excessive vomiting, bleeding, high blood pressure, exposure to cigarette smoking at home. Parents typically allowed children to watch the television and to use gadget almost all of the time, in order for children not to get bored at home. The gadget was used alternately with watching television or playing with friends. Most mothers did not realize that their children had some development problem.

Conclusion: Children with delayed development are associated with historical maternal biological and psychosocial problems during pregnancy.  Most mothers do not realize that their children have some development problem.  Most of the parents are not aware of their unfavorable parenting style.

Keywords: development, maternal pregnancy, biological, psychosocial, cigarette smoke exposure, children under five.

Correspondence: Budi Setyawati. National Institute of Health Research and Development. Jl. Percetakan Negara No.29, Jakarta, Indonesia. Email: setya.setyawati.wati@gmail.com. Mobile: +62-214751749

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/ICPHmaternal.FP.08.2021.11

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