The Risks of Hypertension in Pregnant Women: A Meta-Analysis

Anita Dewi Lieskusumastuti1,2), Lilik Hanifah1,2), Catur Setyorini1,2)Trisakti Halimah Delimasari 2), Rina Tri Handayani2)


1)Universitas ‘Aisyiyah, Yogyakarta

2)School of Health Sciences Mamba’ul ‘Ulum, Surakarta



Background: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy were a global public health problem. Hypertension is a significant contributor for pregnant women to experience life-threatening complications during pregnancy and delivery or in the postpartum period. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for hypertension in pregnant women, with a meta-analysis of the primary study conducted by previous authors.

Subjects and Method: This study was a systematic review and meta-analysis. Online articles from 2011 to 2021 were searched from databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, BASE, and ProQuest. The PICO was as follows. Population: pregnant women. Intervention: hypertension before pregnancy, family history of hypertension and diabetes in the mother. Comparison: without hypertension before pregnancy, with­out a family history of hypertension and diabetes in the mother. Outcome: hyperten­sion. Keywords “hypertension,” “history of hypertension in the family,” “diabetes,” “risk factors,” and “pregnant women.” Articles were analyzed using the Review Manager 5.3 application.

Results: A total of seven articles from China, Ethiopia, Jordanian, Brazil, Pakistan, and Ghana were included in the meta-analysis. The data showed that pregnant women with chronic hypertension before pregnancy (OR= 5.05; 95% CI= 2.78 to 9.17; p= 0.001), diabetes (OR= 3.15; 95% CI= 1.63 to 6.10; p= 0.001), and a family history of hypertension (OR= 3.45; 95% CI= 2.05 to 5.80; p= 0.001) were at risk of developing hypertension during pregnancy.

Conclusion: Chronic hypertension before pregnancy, diabetes, and a family history of hypertension are risk factors hypertension during pregnancy.

Keywords: hypertension, family history, diabetes, risk factors, pregnant women

Correspondence: Anita Dewi Lieskusumastuti. Universitas ‘Aisyiyah Yogyakarta.  Jl. Siliwangi No. 63, Mlangi, Nogotirto, Gamping, Sleman, Yogyakarta. Email: Mobile: 081225917155.


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