The Effect of Vitamin D, Vitamin C, and Multivitamin on Length of Stay and Clinical Outcome of Covid-19 Patients at Bantul General Hospital, Yogyakarta

Nadia Husna, Niken Larasati, Mila Adiningsih, Esanda Zulfi Amedea


Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Health, Jenderal Achmad Yani University Gamping, Sleman, Yogyakarta



Background: Vitamin and multivitamins placed as supportive role in COVID-19 pharmacology therapy. They worked through several mechanisms such immuno­modulatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. Clinical evidence on their positive impact on clinical improvement was remain limited. The aims of this study to describe the use of vitamins and multivitamins and to analyse the association between vitamins or multivitamins against length of stay and clinical outcome.

Subjects and Methods: Study design was using analytical observational, cross-sectional, and retrospective approach. Research was taken in Bantul General Hospital Yogyakarta using consecutive sampling method from medical record data of COVID-19 inpatients from March 2020 to May 2021. The independent variables is vitamins or multivitamins. The dependent variables is length of stay and clinical outcome. Bivariate analysis was using Chi square test.

Results:  Total of 214 patients met the inclusion criteria. Majority numbers were found in male group (53.70%), 45-64 years old (50.90%), moderate level (80.40%), and having comorbid (89.30%). Pneumonia, diabetes, and hypertension were the common morbidities existed in this study. Most of patients suffered fever, dyspnea, and fever as their symptoms during the infection. Vitamin D, vitamin C, and multivitamin ranked as three biggest consumption supplements by 29.15%, 26.86%, and 23.50%, respectively. There was no association found on vitamin C and vitamin D utility to length of stay and clinical outcome. Meanwhile, there was significant association between multivitamin and clinical outcome (OR= 1.14; CI95%= 1.08-1.20; P=0.029).

Conclusion: There was no association discovered between vitamin D and vitamin C against length of stay and clinical outcome in this study whereas the only meaningful association found on the use of multivitamin to better improvement on clinical outcome marked by healed. The implication of this study was to suggest the application of multivitamin among COVID-19 patients in order to earn better outcome.

Keywords: vitamin C, vitamin D, multivitamin, COVID-19, outcome.

Correspondence: Nadia Husna. Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Health, Jenderal Achmad Yani University Yogyakarta. Jalan Brawijaya, Ringroad Barat, Ambarketawang, Gamping, Sleman, Yogyakarta. Email: Mobile: 082134425472.


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