Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the entire world. Long COVID-19 can attack patients who have recovered from the SARS-CoV-2 virus. General symptoms of long COVID-19 include tiredness or fatigue that interferes with daily life, symptoms that get worse after physical or mental effort (also known as “post-exertional malaise”), and fever. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for the occurrence of long COVID-19.
Subjects and Method: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted based on the research question in PICO format. Population: The patient confirmed positive for COVID-19. Intervention: women, obesity, hospitalized, and severe. Comparison: male, normal-weight, not hospitalized, and mild. Outcome: long COVID-19. Articles were searched from 3 databases ProQuest, PubMed, and EBSCO. Keywords used “SARS-CoV-2” AND “Long COVID-19” AND “Obesity” AND “Severity”. The inclusion criteria were full-text articles, cohort study design, multivariate with adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR), and published in 2020-2023. The articles were analyzed using RevMan 5.3.
Result: Meta-analysis included 11 cohort studies from China, Bangladesh, Turkey, England, Switzerland, France, Italy, and Nigeria. Female COVID-19 patients had the risk of experiencing long COVID-19 1.04 times compared to male COVID-19 patients (aOR= 1.04; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.06; p<0.001). COVID-19 patients with obesity had the risk of experiencing long COVID-19 1.01 times compared to normal weight (aOR= 1.01; 95% CI= 0.98 to 1.04; p=0.440). Hospitalized COVID-19 patients had the risk of experiencing long COVID-19 3.75 times compared to non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients (aOR= 3.75; 95% CI 2.84 to 4.95; p<0.001). Severe COVID-19 patients had the risk of experiencing long COVID-19 2.04 times compared to mild patients (aOR= 2.04; 95% CI 1.59 to 2.60; p<0.001).
Conclusion: Female, obese, hospitalized, and severe COVID-19 patients have a higher risk for long COVID-19.
Keywords: long COVID-19, post COVID-19 syndrome, obesity, severe.
Hanisah. Master’s Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Mobile: +628137399337.