Karismatika Surya Gumilar
Master’s Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia.
~ Author


Background: Hypertension is a serious medical condition and can increase the risk of heart, brain, kidney, and other diseases. According to the World Health Organization, it is a major cause of premature death worldwide, with 1 in 4 men and 1 in 5 women – over a billion people having the condition. Studies have shown that regular physical exercise can make the heart stronger. A stronger heart can pump more blood with less effort. As the force on the arteries decreases, blood pressure also lowers. This study aimed to estimate the effect of regular physical exercise on blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

Subjects and Method: This meta-analysis was conducted using the PRISMA flow diagram. The articles were searched using keywords based on the PICO research question. Population: Hypertensive patients. Intervention: Physical exercise. Comparison: Usual activities. Outcome: Blood pressure.  The articles were searched from databases PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct. Keywords used "hypertension" OR "high blood pressure" AND "physical exercise" OR "exercise" OR "physical activity" AND "blood pressure" OR "diastolic pressure" OR "systolic pressure” AND “randomized controlled trial”.  The articles included full-text papers, randomized controlled trials (RCT), English language from 2014 to 2021. The articles were analyzed using Review Manager 5.3.

Results: The meta-analysis included 9 RCTs from Australia, China, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Germany, and Brazil. The total sample size was 513 hypertensive patients.  Hypertensive patients performing regular physical exercises showed lower blood pressure than those not performing physical exercise, and it was statistically significant (SMD: 1.42; 95% CI: 0.13 to 2.70; p= 0.003).

Conclusion: Regular physical exercise reduces blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

Keywords: regular physical exercise, blood pressure, hypertensive patients.


Karismatika Surya Gumilar. Master’s Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: tikasurya­ Mobile: +6281391354007.

How to Cite

THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS: META-ANALYSIS. (2023). The International Conference on Public Health Proceeding, 8(01), 4.