Background: Vaccination remains the key strategy for avoiding hospitalization, long-term health outcomes, and death, due to the coronavirus. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is widely used to explain various health behaviors. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the effect of each construct of the HBM on the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine.
Subjects and Method: This meta-analysis was conducted using the PRISMA flow diagram and PICO research question. Population: General population. Intervention: High perceived susceptibility, high perceived severity, high perceived benefit, high perceived barrier, high self-efficacy, and cues to action. Comparison: Low perceived susceptibility, low perceived severity, low perceived benefit, low perceived barrier, low self-efficacy, and no cues to action. Outcome: Acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine. The articles were searched from databases PubMed, Science Direct, Elsevier, and Google Scholar. Keywords used “COVID-19 Vaccine” AND “acceptance” OR “willingness” AND “health belief model” AND “self-efficacy”. The articles were analyzed using RevMan 5.3.
Results: The meta-analysis included 16 primary studies from Vietnam, Hong Kong, China, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Israel, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Russia, and the United States. The acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine increases with high perceived susceptibility (aOR= 1.72; 95% CI= 1.25 to 2.38; p= 0.001), high perceived severity (aOR=1.76; 95% CI= 1.20 to 2.57; p= 0.004), high perceived benefit (aOR=3.20; 95% CI= 1.82 to 5.61; p <0.001), high self-efficacy (aOR=2.74; 95% CI= 0.99 to 7.59; p= 0.050), and high cues to action (aOR=2.69; 95% CI=2.02 to 3.59; p<0.001). The acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine decreased with a high perceived barrier, although it was non-statistically significant (aOR=0.78; 95% CI= 0.41 to 1.48; p=0.440).
Conclusion: Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine increases with perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefit, self-efficacy, and high cues to action, but decreases with high perceived barrier.
Keywords: COVID-19, vaccine, health belief model, general population.
Correspondence: Zain Nadaa Nisriina. Master’s Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: email@example.com. Mobile: +6285742690620.