Background: Many stressors have been linked to COVID-19 outbreaks. It includes the unpredictable nature of the disease and lack of clarity about the seriousness of the risk, as well as concern about health and isolation. The rapid spread and number of deaths caused by COVID-19 and the growing financial losses can convey an increased risk for mental health conditions among all layers of society. This study aimed to estimate the associations of gender and social support with anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Subjects and Method: A meta-analysis was conducted using the PICO research questions. Population: Individuals aged >15 years old. Intervention: Female and strong social support. Comparison: Male and weak social support. Outcome: Anxiety. The articles were searched from databases: PubMed and Science Direct. This study utilized these keywords to perform the literature searches: “social support” AND anxiety OR “social support” AND “COVID-19”. The inclusion criteria were cross-sectional studies published between 2019 and 2023. The regression coefficient (β) was exponentiated into an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and calculated using the RevMan 5.3.
Results: The meta-analysis included 10 cross-sectional studies from China, Turkey, the United States, and Brazil. Females had a higher risk to has anxiety than males (aOR= 1.61; 95% CI= 1.16 to 2.23; p= 0.005). Strong social support lowered the risk of anxiety (aOR= 0.93; 95% CI= 0.87 to 1.00; p= 0.060).
Conclusion: Females have a higher risk to has anxiety than males. Strong social support decreases the risk of anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Keywords: social support, anxiety, COVID-19 pandemic
Isna Andriani. Master’s Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: email@example.com. Mobile: +6285743770550.